Opening, Bernard ESMEIN
Moral chronical: Moral sense of knowledge of moral facts, Hubert Vincent
This article examines whether and how knowledge of moral facts influences our moral development and our morality itself. It shows how one can interpret this knowledge of moral facts by relying on a long tradition that includes philosophers, novelists, filmmakers and humanities researchers. It tries to situate the effect of this knowledge in the period of adolescence. It examines the moral meaning of this effect. In short, it seeks to analyze what Nietzsche calls The Gay Science.
Notion: Anomie, Richard TASTET
The author begins with discussions about the concept of anomie in social sciences to show how these have moved in the field of educational sciences. The different types of school heckling are a privileged point of view to understand both the scope and the theoretical difficulties of this concept.
Presentation, Alain VERGNIOUX
An art of space and of suspense of the eye: the cinema, Patrick VAUDAY
If reading is an activity that unfolds over time, cinema is first and foremost an art of space that plays with the size of the “window” it opens on the world, multiplying points of view, giving shape to imaginary geographies… A window that captures the world as it is, but also transforms it through fiction, or even constitutes it in a specular way. What is cinema? A frame, a lens, that produce an image – and in doing so, a questioning about the very possibility of a world, or rather about the belief in the existence of any world… (from the Lumière brothers to Jean-Luc Godard). Cinema, therefore, is a way of fabricating the gaze perhaps of educating it, on condition that it leads the person to reach outside of him or herself.
Scientific and Pedagogical Legitimacy of « Popular Science » Cinema in the Soviet Union (1930-1970), Irina TCHERNEVA
In the Soviet Union, scientific and technical cinema evolved within the context of industrial development, planning, training and education of the people. The films were sponsored by the ministries and the companies, then circulated in the industrial and school networks. The article analyzes the conditions and the characteristics of this production, the key elements interacting within it, as well as its progressive transformations since the 1950s-60s: diversification towards a more cultural production, opening to a wider public, greater autonomy for studios and directors.
Cinemas in the countryside. Interwar teachers struggling with political, economic and social issues. Josette UEBERSCHLAG
At the end of the Great War and in order to “raise” the country’s moral and economic state, cinematographic projections spread through the countryside under the impetus of state school teachers and competing Church initiatives. Ministries of Education and Agriculture join forces to fund programs and subsidize the purchase of equipment. In accordance with the institutions and the interests or strategies of the different actors (including Célestin Freinet), oppositions or conflicts arise concerning the formats (35, 17,5, 16 or 9,5 mm), between the manufacturers, and even between national models (German or American models). This somewhat disordered dynamic reaches its apogee with the Popular Front, but the conflicts will not subside until after the Liberation around the consensual idea of “educating cinema”.
Violence in the cinema: A debate in the networks of denominational and secular film clubs (France, 1946-1953), Pascal LABORDERIE
After the Second World War, debates in film club federations and publications focus on cinema’s influence on youth and the issue of violence. The debates are organized according to a main division between secular and religious journals, Catholic and Protestant publications, but other divisions also emerge. Indeed against the backdrop of the Cold War and anti-Americanism, in a general context of offensive secularism, the dividing lines and criteria (political, moral, intellectual) are mobile. The authors study more closely three journals (over the period 1946-53) from the note cards, the grading or rating tables they offer to their readers, as well as three films that gave rise to very contrasting judgments.
Cinema for children, school film club, School and cinema, G. AUBART, P. CARIÉ, A. VERGNIOUX
At the end of the 70s, in the face of commercial cinema’s shortcomings, the issue of children’s cinema is renewed and initiatives arise to give the young public access to quality films. The manifesto “Pour un cinéma auquel les enfants ont droit” (1976) defines its principles, organizes the programming and the distribution in youth and community centers and in primary schools. The authors describe how such a project was born and developed in Finistère in a pioneering way and with the support of local institutions. They show how the system set up at that time (projections during school time, in commercial movie theaters, etc.) breaks with the film-club model of the previous period, shakes up the habits of the National Education, invents a new concept of “educating cinema” and ensures the transition with systems that will then be generalized at all levels of the teaching institution with Les enfants de cinéma.
Cinema teaching in question: assessment and mutations. Proposals for a medio-pragmatic, Barbara LABORDE
After recalling the forms of institutionalization of the teaching of cinema as an art in the National Education in the 80s, and showing how the study of cinema at University was attached to art studies, this paper analyzes the pedagogical model of the “cinema and audio-visual” teachings in high schools, a model based on the analysis of works under the categories of an education of the sensitive, of expression and of creativity, and which seeks to lead the pupil to his or her aesthetic realization. The paper shows the limits of this approach and perhaps the illusions that are attached to it, and proposes another didactic paradigm, that of a medio-pragmatic. The latter would turn to modes of circulation, transformation and mixing of images in spaces (TV, video games, internet, etc.) that correspond to the actual practice of pupils, to their reception, their sensitivity, in order to introduce them to the critical analysis of these new languages’ functioning, challenges and implications.
Study: Education explained for teachers, David MONNIER
Rudi Rosenberg’ s movie, entitled “Le nouveau”, produced by Récifilms and released in 2015, is important within the history of cinema that concerns childhood at school. It presents a problem that is rarely staged, related to the power of some and the duties of others. It introduces a new point of view, highlighting certain sometimes underestimated aspects of the function of mastery and its place in social life. The story gives an opportunity to display the issues the characters are confronted with : integration, exclusion, intimidation, submission as well as adaptation, imitation, participation and seduction. Study is not always at the center of the pupils’ attention. The classroom is sometimes only secondary to the schoolyard, a side-issue of the school life.
Study: Ethical thinking and school education: praise of hesitation, Vincent LORIUS
The relationships between values and teaching are both complex and very relevant to current times. This article argues that the relationships are generally analyzed in a rather simplistic way because of a disproportionate trust in moral obligations. It argues that, on the contrary, there is value in “doubt” in order to identify the morally relevant characteristics of a situation, which are not necessarily those that seem the most salient. It is this proximity between doubt and ethical clairvoyance that makes it operational in the educational field. This is why educational moral doubt, understood as an ability to hesitate, can be considered both as a means for keeping in touch with reality and as a means for conceiving it positively: in today’s school context, the best way to reach a preferable good does not depend on the energy one uses in brandishing values.
La traduction des résumés a été revue par Marina Schwimmer, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQÀM).